• Augustan to Gothic

    - It began in the eighteenth century .
    -After death of Queen Anne in 1417, the German house of  Hanover took over the British throne.
    - There were two rebellions led by the Gothic son and grandson of James11  in  1715 and 1745, but both of them were defeated.
    -The time of industrial revolution and the agricultural revolution
    - A new mood of freedom began to grow : The American  Declaration of Independence in 1776  was the first sign of this
    -The French revolution in 1789.
    Literary events:
    - The focus was on the world of nature and nature feelings.
    - Drama became less important; novel became more important.
    - Journalism  and magazines reflected the opinion of new middle class.
    The Rise of the Novel:
    -The rise of the novel started before the early 1700s. 
    -Women were the greatest part of the reader and writer in the late 17 century and early 18 century.
    -SamuelRichardson wrote the novel (Pamela).
    "Pamela is poor, but a good women, and in her letters the reader can follow all her problems with Mr. B who want to marry her.
    -Many readers have found the moral tone of Richardson's novels difficult to accept. But in his own time he was very successful. Richardson examined female ideas and circumstances.
    The Novel After 1750
    (The Castle of Ortanto) written by Horace Walpole's 1764.
    Matthew Lewis wrote (The Monk) 1796.
    The story about a monk tries to capture a young girl and he kill her then the monk caught, so the devil helps him to escape, but he die after all.
    Augustan poetry
    Alexander Pope: ''Dryden's successor'':-
    1712-Pope became famous after the  first two cantose of theRope of lock (theft of hair ) were published .The poem is a mock–heroic  satire a bout family argument over  a bit of Belinda's hair which was cut  by a friend.
    -Much of Pope's writing is about other writers or figure from the upper class society of the time .
    Journalism and Criticism
    - Writing became a profession, and authors were now professional. 
    - Newspapers and magazines were started at this time, and most of the greatest writers of the time were also journalists.
    - The journalism of the early eighteenth century took the opinions and fashions of the capital city, London, to the whole nation.
    - Scotland in the eighteenth century was centre of philosophical writings.
    - The most famous of the early magazines were The Tatler by Steel (1709), andThe Spectator by Steel and Addison (1711).
    - The magazines were important in ex pressing ideas, and influencing the values of the society they wrote for and about.
    - The journalism can be seen as comfortable and safe writing, proved to be very influential in the forming of eighteenth century tastes.
    - Essays of criticism were also becoming popular at this time. 
    - The major critic of the eighteenth century was Samuel Johnson, and he started the beginning of a major tradition.
    - The biography was published in 1791.
    - one of the most important books of the second half of the eighteenth century was The History of theDecline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Gibbon, published in 1776.
    Letters and Diaries
    - Letters and diaries began to grow in importance in the eighteenth century.
    - Lord Chesterfield'sLetters to his son published in 1774.
    - The diaries of SamuelPepys. 
    Done by:  Habiba -Sara –Eqbal-Aseel .