• Jean-Paul Sartre

    Jean-Paul-Charles Sartre was born on June 21, 1905. He is a son of Jean Baptiste Sartre, and Anne Marie Schweitzer. Because of his grand father and as a result of his family setup, Sartre immersed himself in reading and writing. Therefore, he became a famous writer.                                                            


    ” I think therefore, I am exist “

    This is what Sartre believe in. This theory sees that human will not be exist until they think and believe in what they are thinking of, for example, if the man think in a phone and believe that the phone is there and he can touch it, then the phone will exist. By of this theory Sartre sees that ART is important for the writer because of what they think and believe in it; they write it in novels, drama and poetry. Through the readers, writers works will exist and lived forever.            

    Sartre had many important words:

    1) The Objectivity:

    – being impersonal which means that when you read something, your feelings and emotions are away, you only use your mind.    

    – reader can be subjective

    2) The subjectivity:

    – being personal which means that the writer is putting all his emotions in what he is writing.                                                   

    – writer cannot be objective.

    3) Creation:

    – The writer creates something.

    4) Directors and Producer:

    – The writers direct the world, but they are not the producer of the universal.

    5) Reveal of the universal:

    – Appear to the eyes what was hidden.

    Sartre talked about Readers and writers:

    1) `The writer.. he awaits,…[I] if he hesitates, he knows that the future is no made, that he himself is going to make it…[T] his future is then a blank page, whereas the future of the reader is two hundred pages filled with words which separate him from the end.`  (page 625).                                                 

    That is the first different between the writer and the reader. The writer need to think to write the future, while the reader need to read so his book will have the future and will lives.       

    2) In Sartre opinion the reader is more important than the writer because:

    when A and B write, A let his writings confidential and no one know about it, he died, his writings died with him. While B published his writings and C read it, the writings of B lived although he died. In short readers are giving a life for the writings because:                                                                       

    a) Read it.

    b) Talked about it.

    3) Writers create the `thing` and the readers reveal it.

    4) the writer writes the novel, so he is essential to the novel, but when he finished he can’t read it, why? Because he became subjective. In the contrary the reader is objective, because when he read it, he sees it from new perspective.

    5) The writer always afraid from what he is thinking in, because he is afraid that his work will failed and could not finish his job. In the other side the reader is not afraid from finish the book he is read or to use what the writer created.   

    The Freedom according to Sartre:

    The freedom is important for Sartre, but with the freedom came a very important thing and that is responsibility.

    Before, the writers were forced to write whatever the public want, but Sartre said that he have the freedom to write whatever he want and choose and he must be responsible for his writings and his choice.                                                        

    Not every day I have a new opinion according to what people saying and want. He said that we must take sides in our life we must not change.                                                                        

    ` Is it a matter of acting as guardian of ideal values like Benda`s clerk before the betrayal, or is it concrete, everyday freedom which must be protected by our taking sides in political and social struggles?` (page 634).                                

    The reader’s freedom:

    ` Thus, reading is an exercise in generosity, and what the writer requires of the reader is not the application of an abstract freedom but the gift of his whole person, with his passions, his prepossessions, his sympathies, his sexual temperament, and his scale of values.` (page 628).                     

    Her we can say:

    1) The reader should let the writer write whatever he wants.

    2) To read, who he wishes, he must think for himself to choose what he wants to read à hold on to his morals and values not just because this is right or wrong but because he believes in them and thought of them.                                                         

    At the end he asked ` for whom does one writes?`. The answer is one write to himself to be exist.