• Ferdinand de Saussure



    He was born in Geneva and gained his Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig in 1880. Saussure published specialized monographs in linguistics during his lifetime, such as his Memoir on the Primitive System of Vowels in the Indo-European Language. He gave birth to structuralism, based on lecture notes by his student published in 1916 as “The Course in General Linguistics”. Known as the father of modern linguistics.

    Place of Language in the Facts of Speech:

    -The relation between words and things can not be based on natural resemblances (957).

    -Le langage(language): generally human faculty.

    -La langue(language): the name for specific languages.

    -La parole(speech): the executive side of language.

    Place of Language in Human Facts:

    -Semiology:The scientific study of properties of signaling systems, whether natural or artificial(958).

    Nature of the Linguistic Sign:

    – Some people regard language, … as  a naming process only__ a list of words, each corresponding to the thing that it names (963).

    -The study of language as eventually forming part of a large science of signs in culture, which he called semiology (958).

    -the atom of language is the sign, which is functionally spit into two parts:    

                                  a- A signifier (sound-image).

                                  b- A signified (concept or idea).

    -The tow elements are intimately united, and each recalls the other (964).  

    Characteristics of the linguistic sign:

    1- Arbitrary: the sign is conventional that has to be learned and is not subject to individual will (965).

    2- Linear: signifiers are presented in succession; they form a chin according to two relations:

                                  a- Syntagmatic (successive).

                                       b- Paradigmatic (associative).

    Done by:   Anwar Al Rashed


                           Aisha Al Bannai