Louis Althusser

(1918-1990)

 

Ideological State Apparatuses(ISA): civil institutions that have legal standing like churches, schools, family, courts, political parties, unions, media, sports and arts.

Respressive State Apparatuses(RSA): police, military, prison, government.

Ideology: "the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence." Ideology is the means by which the dominant values of a society are maintained. Ideology is not freely chosen but is a result of structure of society.

Interpellation: a way of making a person believe that s/he is choosing freely when actually s/he is not.

Overdeterminism: an effect arising from multiple causes not one single (economic) factor. This undercuts the simplistic notion of a one-to-one correspondence between base and superstructure.

Relative autonomy:  though culture and economics are connected, art has a degree of independence from economic forces.

 

Art alludes to reality, making us see and feel (not Know) the ideology it springs from. (p. 1481)

Ideology is found in all human activity, seen in the lived experiences of characters in literature. (p. 1481)