Structuralism and Semiotics


1) Structuralism:

          a. It is an intellectual movement which began in France in the 1950s.

          b. It was first seen in the work of the anthropologist Claude Levis Strauss and the literary

 critic Ronald Brathes.

2) The structuralists:

          a. Saussure:

1. He classified the linguistic structures to three pronouncements which are: that the meaning of the words is arbitrary, relational and the language constitutes our world.

2. He used the terms 'langue' and 'parole' to signify respectively language as a system on the one hand and any given utterance in that language on the other.

          b. Claude Levi Strauss suggested that:

                   1. Saussure linguistic model is called 'langue'.

                   2. The study of instance of speech or writing is called 'parole'.

          c. Roland Brathes:

                   1. He wrote a book (s/z) that identified five codes which are:

          A. The proairetic code.            B. The hermeneutic code.                  C. The cultural

 code.          D. The semic code.                            E. The symbolic code.

3) Semiotics:

          A. Jonathan Culler suggested that:

                   1. The term semiotic is denoting the formal doctrine of signs.

                   2. It is established by the American pragmatist Charles Pierce in the 19th century.

                   3. The methods and objects of semiotics and structuralism are similar.

                   4. Semiotics does not only deal with language system as a sign but also gestures,

icons, and symbols are considered part of it.

                   5. Semiotic analysis of literary texts by Culler had two main insights:

                             A. social and cultural

                             B. network of relations.

                        7. Semiotics as a technique of meaning.

                   6. The two assumptions of semiotics are:

                             A. treating literature.

                             B. identifying the effects.

                   7. The objection to the first assumption:

                           that it insist on the importance of attempting to separate the work itself from

 interpretations of it.

          B. Yury M. Lotman suggested that:

                   1. There are two main different points of view from which one may differentiate

 between works of literature.

                             A. The differentiation in term of function.

                             B. The differentiation in term of internal organization of the text.

                   2. The aesthetic function is:

                             A. The reaction between function and organization of the text.

                             B. Two principles take place differently in each type of culture.