Augustan to Gothic




- It began in the eighteenth century .


-After death of Queen Anne in 1417,the German house of  Hanover  tookover the British throne.

- There were two rebellionsled by the Gothic son and grandson of James11  in  1715 and 1745, but both of them weredefeated.

The time of industrialrevolution and the agricultural revolution .-

- A new mood of freedom beganto grow : The American  Declarationof Independence in 1776  was thefirst sign of this ,

 The French revolution in  1789.


Literary events:-*-

- The focus was on the worldof nature and nature feelings.

- Drama became less important;novel became more important.

- Journalism  and magazines reflected the opinion ofnew middle class.



*TheRise of the Novel:-

·        Therise of the novel started before the early 1700s. 

·        Womenwere the greatest part of the reader and writer in the late 17 century andearly 18 century.

·        SamuelRichardson wrote the novel (Pamela).

"Pamela is poor, but a good women, and in her lettersthe reader can follow all her problems with Mr. B who want to marry her.

·        Manyreaders have found the moral tone of Richardson's novels difficult to accept.But in his own time he was very successful. But

Richardson examined female ideas and circumstances.

* TheNovel After 1750

(The Castle of Ortanto) written by Horace Walpole's 1764.

Matthew Lewis wrote (The Monk) 1796.

The storyabout a monk tries to capture a young girl and he kill her then the monkcaught, so the devil helps him to escape, but he die after all.


* Augustan poetry :-

Alexander Pope: ''Dryden'ssuccessor'':-

1712-Pope became famouseafter the  first two cantose of theRope of lock (theft of hair ) were published .The poem is a mock–heroic  satire a bout family argument over  abit of Belinda's hair which was cut  by a friend.

-Much of Pope's writing isabout other writers or figure from the upper class society of the time .


*- Journalism andCriticism:-

- Writing became aprofession, and authors were now professional.

- Newspapers and magazineswere started at this time, and most of the greatest writers of the timewere also journalists.

- The journalism ofthe early eighteenth century took the opinions and fashions of thecapital city, London, to the whole nation.

- Scotland in theeighteenth century was centre of philosophical writings.

- The most famous of theearly magazines were The Tatler by Steel (1709), and

The Spectator by Steeland Addison (1711).

- The magazines wereimportant in ex pressing ideas, and influencing the values of thesociety they wrote for and about.

- The journalism can beseen as comfortable and safe writing, proved to be very influential in theforming of eighteenth century tastes.

- Essays of criticism werealso becoming popular at this time.

- The major critic of theeighteenth century was Samuel Johnson, and he started the beginning of amajor tradition.

- The biography waspublished in 1791.

- one of the most importantbooks of the second half of the eighteenth century was The History of theDecline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Gibbon, published in 1776.


Letters and Diaries

- Letters and diaries beganto grow in importance in the eighteenth century.

- Lord Chesterfield'sLetters to his son published in 1774.

- The diaries of SamuelPepys. 




Done by:  Habiba -Sara –Eqbal-_Aseel .